Modified Newtonian dynamics – Video Learning – WizScience.com

In physics, “modified Newtonian dynamics” is a theory that proposes a modification of Newton’s laws to account for observed properties of galaxies. Created in 1983 by Israeli physicist Mordehai Milgrom, the theory’s original motivation was to explain the fact that the velocities of stars in galaxies were observed to be larger than expected based on Newtonian mechanics. Milgrom noted that this discrepancy could be resolved if the gravitational force experienced by a star in the outer regions of a galaxy was proportional to the square of its centripetal acceleration , or alternatively if gravitational force came to vary inversely with radius . In MOND, violation of Newton’s Laws occurs at extremely small accelerations, characteristic of galaxies yet far below anything typically encountered in the Solar System or on Earth.

MOND is an example of a class of theories known as modified gravity, and is an alternative to the hypothesis that the dynamics of galaxies are determined by massive, invisible dark matter halos. Since Milgrom’s original proposal, MOND has successfully predicted a variety of galactic phenomena that are difficult to understand from a dark matter perspective. However, MOND and its generalisations do not adequately account for observed properties of galaxy clusters, and no satisfactory cosmological model has been constructed from the theory.

Several independent observations point to the fact that the visible mass in galaxies and galaxy clusters is insufficient to account for their dynamics, when analysed using Newton’s laws. This discrepancy – known as the “missing mass problem” – was first identified for clusters by Swiss astronomer Fritz Zwicky in 1933 , and subsequently extended to include spiral galaxies by the 1939 work of Horace Babcock on Andromeda. These early studies were augmented and brought to the attention of the astronomical community in the 1960s and 1970s by the work of Vera Rubin at the Carnegie Institute in Washington, who mapped in detail the rotation velocities of stars in a large sample of spirals. While Newton’s Laws predict that stellar rotation velocities should decrease with distance from the galactic centre, Rubin and collaborators found instead that they remain almost constant – the rotation curves are said to be “flat”. This observation necessitates at least one of the following: 1) There exists in galaxies large quantities of unseen matter which boosts the stars’ velocities beyond what would be expected on the basis of the visible mass alone, or 2) Newton’s Laws do not apply to galaxies. The former leads to the dark matter hypothesis; the latter leads to MOND.

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Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK.

Background Music:
“The Place Inside” by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library.

This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modified+Newtonian+dynamics, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.

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